Tuesday, 29 May 2012

Report from the 88.1fm freeding frenzy

The announcement last fall that the CRTC was opening up the last major FM radio frequency in Toronto led to a larger than usual deluge of applications to fill it. The various applicants show a vast array of Toronto's population from Christians to Gays, from Sikhs to Tamils, from French to Jamaicans, from Indie Rock to Blues. There are applications for talk radio and various music genres mixed in with applications from Ryerson and the CBC. Originally there were 27 applicants but by the final deadline they were down to 22. Here then are the applicants (drumroll please and save your applause till the end);

1. The Evanov Group and PROUD FM;
Owned by Bill Evanov, PROUD FM is the "Gay themed" radio station that has been on air since 2007 at 103.9fm with a small 60 watt signal, and they are looking to upgrade to a larger signal capable of reaching the entire city. Evanov started this bidding war by putting in the first application which acted as a starter's pistols for everyone else. Besides PROUD FM Evanov also owns numerous other stations across Canada and last year was granted a similar license for a Gay themed station in Montreal. One bonus for this one, besides being able to claim they are representing a marginalized community, is that Evanov is proposing to move from 103.9 to 88.1fm which would then open up 103.9 fm for bidding for those who wanted another chance at this. The CRTC might actually like that since it would mean the weren't quite giving away the final signal while at the same time the smaller reach of 103.9 fm would probably convince some of the others to drop out leading to a smaller feeding frenzy next time.

PROUD FM promo;


2. Ryerson University;
Actually Ryerson started off the feeding frenzy in the first place when they lost the license for the previous Ryerson based station, CKLN, whose license was revoked in 2010 as we all know by now. Their attempt to regain the license uses a couple of the old CKLN management and has the support of the National Campus Radio Association (mostly from out west), but is far more Ryerson-centric and not really a true community station than was CKLN. They are promising a mix of "ethnic" programming with Ryerson sports and live music which seems a little vague and confusing and probably of little interest to any non-Ryerson student. In fact it may of little interest even to them. As the CRTC pointed out several times the referendum that agreed to fund the station had only a 10% voter turnout. Another question is whether Ryerson be rewarded for shutting down the last station they had.

Radio Ryerson Promo;


3. The CBC;
Anyone hoping they were looking at moving CBC 3 to the airwaves can forget it, this is an application for a French language repeater station. The CBC has certain advantages over other applications in that they don't have to prove they are financially sustainable, because they're the CBC. And they don't have to prove they have technical and professional experience and know-how, because they're the CBC. It is also part of the expressed mandate of both the CBC and the CRTC to promote National Unity and Bilingualism. In fact the CBC has basically said that they are entitled to the signal and shouldn't even have to bid with all these peasants. That didn't earn many friends. However there is a legitimate question as to whether Toronto's tiny Francophone community warrants a radio station anyway. The current audience for French language TV stations in Toronto is negligible and a couple of years ago Champlain Books, Toronto's venerable French bookstore, was forced to close it's doors. Then there is the matter of whether it is a good idea for the Mother Corp to be starting another radio station while they are going through serious budget cuts. As an additional wrinkle there is another French language application coming from CHOQ FM, and you can imagine all the manufactured outrage from the Tories and their mouthpieces over at the Sun if CBC got it over CHOQ, or anyone else for that matter.

A French language station operating with a tiny signal at 1watt on 105.1fm since 2006, like PROUD FM they are looking to upgrade to a larger signal. They face the same questions about the viability of a French station in Toronto. They may have one advantage over the CBC however; a local track record and the knowledge that Toronto's Francophone community is different than Ottawa's in that many don't come from Quebec, Acadia or Northern Ontario (unlike CBC staff) but from Africa and Haiti. The CBC signal is going to be a repeater signal anyway so if there is an actual need for a French station in Toronto it would be better to give it to a group with actual local roots. Like PROUD FM they would also be giving up their current signal, tiny though it is.

The Caribbean station owned by Fitzroy Gordon which only got it's license last year now wants an upgrade, moving from 96.8 to 88.1fm. Like the PROUD FM application this would then open up 96.8 to someone else. They now say they need an upgrade to survive, but since they've only been on air less than a year the CRTC is unlikely to be very impressed with this claim. In their application they also take time out to basically call the CBC jerks and liars for opposing them the last time out so that should be fun. At least this time Gordon manages to avoid bragging about his close personal friendship with Stephen Harper and Jason Kenny as he has in every interview in the past year.

Fitzroy Gordon whines about the CBC again;


6. INDIE 88;
An application from Barrie based Rock 95 to start an "Indie Rock" station which appear to similar to the much beloved CFNY in it's 1980's glory days, before it turned into the much watered down "Edge 102". This one may be a bit of a long-shot but it has gotten some support from the local music scene (I must point out that I also wrote a letter of support) and if done right could appeal to the same kind of engaged scenesters. To win over such a grass roots audience they will have to prove that even though they are in Barrie they can get deeply in touch with the local scene. Then again CFNY started out in Burlington and that worked out pretty well. They also have to be able to define what "Indie" music means to the CRTC who seem to have some trouble with the concept.


An application for a "Rock and Blues" station from two brothers who own a similar station in Ottawa where it's worked out well. They have generated one of the largest amount of support letters and there is certainly an audience for blues that is not being served by the bland JAZZ FM. The Ottawa Blues Festival is a big yearly event that one would think could be exported here easily. However the Toronto blues club scene has dried up over the last decade as the audience has moved out further to the suburbs and not been replaced with younger fans. The fading Toronto Blues Society has failed utterly to face this problem so how would DAWG deal with this? At any rate their schedule seems to lean more towards the rock end of things so they might be competing more with Q107 anyway. Oh, and their logo is really ugly too. Still; it's not a bad idea. This is my second favorite one after Indie 88. They also have the support of Dan Ackroyd who appeared via tele-conference

DAWG FM Promo;


8. Zoomer Radio;
Moses Znaimer's radio for people too old for that darn internet thingy wants to expand. They say their AM 740 signal is so crappy that they just have to move. Unlike PROUD FM or CARN he does not want to give up his current signal however. That does raise an obvious question; if AM 740 is so terrible why do they insist on keeping it? He does have a letter of support from Anne Murray though. So there.

9. CHIN;
Toronto's longstanding multicultural pioneer looks to expand as well, with additional language programming for Russian, Tagalog, Vietnamese and Farsi. They are also not into giving up any of their existing signals. CHIN has an excellent track record and few enemies, and can honestly claim to represent communities otherwise not well served. They are genuinely popular in such circles and have made a lot of high placed friends in politics and should not be discounted. CHIN has proved that is is possible for such a station to pay it's bills and behave professionally. However does Toronto really need another CHIN station?

10. Trust Ministries;
A Christian group who own two other radio stations. Oddly enough manager Scott Jackson used to work for Bill Evanov (of PROUD FM) so that should make for an interesting reunion. They have apparently been working on this for a while and were the second group to announce their intentions (after Evanov) and Jackson also ran a mega successful Christian station in Nashville so they are no amateurs. They are also a registered charity. Their website acknowledges they are a bit of a long shot and asks supporters to pray. I'd say they didn't have a prayer but that would just be wrong.

Trust Ministries promo


11. Family FM;
This one is a little odd. They are claiming to be focused on "Families" whatever that means. Since when is that a genre? They focus on the likes of Raffi and Sharon, Lewis and Bram, but then admit that that will only make up a small part of their actual programming, the rest is bland easy listening. Their vague format is vainly searching for a niche that probably does not exist in any real way. Actually the head of this one, Paul Fredricks, is connected with a Christian Bookstore called "Faith Family Books" which explains alot, although they don't mention the Christian part. They also have the involvement of Jane Hawtin (ex of Q107, CFRB and CBC) who brings radio experience and Pinball Clemmons (ex of The Argos) who brought some jokes and his big smile to the hearings.

12. BIZ 88;
An application for a Business news format. This has been tried by Blumberg in New York and gotten consistently poor ratings for years. However because of it's high-end audience advertisers may not mind that very much. It's also pretty cheap to run. They have veteran TV news journalist Donna Skelly on board. There was a previous attempt at an "All Business and Traffic and Weather" format a few years ago that quickly failed, even after they desperately tried to attract attention by airing right wing crackpot shows from America like Glen Beck and other denizens of FOX. Since apparently that's what our business leaders want; bizarro conspiracy theories about Obama and Hitler. I can't imagine why that didn't catch on here. Their programming has a lot of blank spots that they are vague on how they intend to fill, which doesn't instill a lot of faith. However that previous station was a low power station with only a localized signal by the airport. This one is run by the same group that owns CHCH in Hamilton who recently had to apologize for accidentally running porn on the air. Nobody mentioned that though since that's presumably not part of their programming plans.

13. World Band Media;
Another talk radio application. This one has deep pockets and a former Mike Harris era Cabinet Minster on it's Board so they are not fooling around. To prove it, along with their application they also filed a separate and amazing 29 page hostile intervention attacking all the other applications which is pretty hard hitting. Still it's another talk radio format that belongs on AM and which doesn't offer a very convincing argument in their own favour as they want yet another droning talk radio station. Because Toronto doesn't have enough of those already. The best argument they can come up with is to basically say that every other type of radio is going downhill anyway so it's pointless to resist, like talk radio is the Borg or something. Still; should the last FM signal in Toronto be wasted on a talk radio format that really belongs on AM if at all? I think not.

14. TNT Media;
Yet another Talk Radio application. This time from a Montreal group who already own a station there and promise "Extreme, Explosive Talk Radio", (translation; American style all-outrage-all-the-time) and their application uses a lot of exclamation points. Great, that's just what we need. Especially on FM. That above mentioned hostile intervention from Worldband is especially disdainful of this one. But not as much as I am.

15. Metro 88.1;
From Larche Communications who own four other successful stations in Ontario, either country or classic rock so they are not amateurs either. No this is not another doomed attempt at a country station in Toronto. This a doomed attempt at a vague "AAA" format which freely translated means "Rock and pop for people too old for The Edge but not old enough for an oldies station, and too rock and roll for EZ Rock but not quite enough for Q107", mixed with some comedy. Their application has a bunch of figures to prove that they won't just be competing with CHUM FM, Q107 or JACK FM, none of which I believe.

Metro 88 promo

16. Tower 88 fm;
A bland easy listening aimed at women in particular, wait; isn't that why we have EZ Rock? Run by Micheal Wekerle, a radio newbie with a lot of business experience and cash. How much cash you ask? He has Ivan Fecan, former head of CTV on board. They also sweeten the pot by promising to play tons of Canadian content and Aboriginal artists that got them the support of former Chief Phil Fontaine. That's a lot of fire-power for what is otherwise another easy listening station.

TOWER 88 promo

17. Durham Radio Inc;
Durham owns four other stations, mostly country or easy rock. Here they are calling themselves "88.1, The Lake FM", which is one of those annoying pointless brand names radio stations give themselves these days, remember when "The Edge" used to be called "CFNY"? That was when they were actually pretty cool. "The Lake"? What does that mean exactly? Are they going to be playing sea shanties? Actually it's anther bland commercial Easy Listening station which, or the music your dentist plays in the waiting room. Their application is possibly one of the biggest and contains a mind numbing amount of charts and figures, which is only slightly more boring than listening to the station itself would be.

18. Newcap Radio inc;
Yet another easy listening station. Newcap owns a jawdropping 79 other stations though so they must know something. Actually in the time it took me to write this they actually got another one. Seriously.

19. Stan 88fm;
An English language multi-cultural urban/hip-hop/pop/smooth jazz station aimed at second and third generation listeners. It's modestly named after it's owner Stanislas Antony. This might even be a workable idea in a multi ethnic city like Toronto, on the other hand it's so vague it might be a really stupid idea, either way it's different and Toronto is one of the few places it could have come from. At the hearings the CRTC was very skeptical about their finances, so that's a big problem.

20. Asia FM;
A Korean run Asian station which will however be mostly in English with 14% in Korean. The music will be pop and dance from Japan, Korea, China and Taiwan. I know there is a large Asian community in Toronto but how many prefer mostly English? How will Korean, Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, Tibetans, or Thais (who all have longstanding rivalries) enjoy sharing a station? Do they really have converging tastes? Will they all stick around for the Korean language parts? How many are happy to keep getting their music from the web? It's a bold idea but a risky one. They got the best line in the hearings when one of the other applicants claimed that Toronto already had a Chinese station in Fairchild Radio. Their response; "We shouldn't have to point out that not all Asians are Chinese." Good one.

21. S. Sivakkumaran;
Not surprisingly it's an application for a ethnic radio station aimed at Tamil, Urdu, Farsi, Turkish, Arabic, Malay, Philippino and African communities. This puts them in direct competition with CHIN of course, as well as a brand new Tamil station in Scarborough. However if the CRTC decides that CHIN has enough radio stations that may not hurt them to much, sure doesn't help though.

22.MTSD Broadcast inc;
This is an application for a station aimed at the Punjabi community. There is no doubt an audience here, but they are being opposed by some of the existing radio stations catering to the Punjabis. It is also too limited compared to most of the other choices.

There were originally supposed to be a few other applicants who announced but then either dropped out or were dropped by the CRTC before the hearings for failing the technical aspects as the CRTC reserves the right to do. One such application was from Astral Media who no doubt dropped out when they announced their upcoming merger with Bell which will require them to divest some of their stations including The Flow. Another applicant was for a Tamil station which has instead decided to apply for a station in Markham. Oddly the other three or four were all South Asian applicants

Tuesday, 1 May 2012

Dick Clark vs. Alan Feed

What side are you on, Beatles or Stones? That used to be the defining Rock and Roll question; did you prefer the subtle, clever pop craftsmanship of The Beatles or the raw sexuality of the bad boy Rolling Stones? Or to put it another way; were you a Mod or a Rocker?

This line in the sand was the classic divide of Rock and Roll. The Beatles, especially in their lovable Mop Top phase, were so charming that even some parents could almost tolerate them. They had upbeat melodies and four part harmonies that went "Yeah yeah yeah!". They bounced around the microphone and bowed curtly after each song. And they wanted to "hold your hand". The Stones on the other hand swaggered and swore, they pranced and swaggered. They looked like they were about to steal your hubcaps. They had over-amped guitars and their singer had an arrogant nasal sneer. And they wanted to do a lot more than hold your hand. If you liked the Beatles you may have had good taste but you were not really in touch with the dark heart of Rock and Roll. That's where the Stones lived.

This debate goes even further back than the sixties in fact and has it's echos in contrasts between, say, the clean-cut smiling Bill Haley and the young greasy Elvis. Later after he went into the army the new cleaned up Elvis versus more authentically greasy rockabillies like Gene Vincent. Between white and black Doo Wop. Between the twangy Duane Eddy and the rumbling Link Wray. Between the pop-surf of the Beach Boys and the blaring guitar surf of Dick Dale. Between the slick soul of Sam Cooke and the sweat of James Brown. Between the craftsmanship of Motown and the strutting of Stax. Between the upbeat Mersey beat of the Dave Clark 5 and the blues-rock of the Yardbirds and Animals. Between the Psyche and Folk Rock of California and the Garage Punk of the Midwest and Texas. Between the Nashville Sound of Patsy and the Bakersfield twang of Buck Owens and the later Outlaw sound. Between New Wave and Punk. It actually goes back even further in the 1930's and 40's between the machine-like precision of the white big bands like Glenn Miller, Benny Goodman and The Dorseys versus the more open swing of Duke Ellington and Count Basie. And even earlier to the 1920's and Louis Armstrong and Bix Beiderbecke.

Of course it's really a false choice, there is no good reason why a discerning fan couldn't and shouldn't like them all. Taste is not a political of moral question after all. Except when it is.


Because you don't even have to be a Rock historian to know there is a vast world of difference between Elvis and Pat Boone, or any of the various pretty boy singers named Frankie or Bobby. One is authentic Rock and Roll and the other is the music industry's concerted attempt to tame and exploit this new Rock and Roll beast.

That brings us to Dick Clark. Or if I may borrow a quote from Brother Chuck D;
"Dick Clark was a hero to some, but he never meant shit to me, that cat was racist! Straight up racist!"
OK that is totally not fair; he wasn't really of course. But he was closer to the villain that sanitized rock and roll for the white suburbs than was Elvis or even Bill Haley.

The first major political clash in Rock and Roll was between two DJ's and what they represented. Between Alan Freed (and Dewey Phillips) and Dick Clark.

Alan Freed (in Cleveland) and Dewey Phillips (in Memphis) were the first real Rock and Roll DJ's. If they didn't actually invent the term Rock and Roll (as Freed claimed) they certainly publicized it, and brought it and the music of black juke joints, white-trash honky-tonks and urban street corners to the wider white middle class suburbs had no clue such worlds existed.


Freed and Phillips were shocking to respectable society. They were brash and pushy, they bragged and swaggered. They wore loud clothes, they drank hard, chain smoked, popped pills and sounded like it. They were arrogant and utterly shameless. And they loved a good fight with stuck up squares. When the various civic and legal guardians of virtue tried to stop them from playing black music, or from booking concerts with not only mixed race bills but mixed audiences as well, they barked back their outraged defiance. When their concerts got canceled they denounced the petty institutional racism that would deny kids a chance to dance together. And they did it in public. When record companies and radio station owners tried to force them to play the bland white cleaned up cover versions of real Rock and Roll songs they refused. When they were offered bribes to play nice Freed bragged that he had taken their money and still refused to play their crappy records. It was indeed a moral question after all for a few of the early Rock n' Roll moguls like DJ's Alan Freed and Dewey Phillips along with record label owners Sam Phillips of Sun (no relation), Ehmet Ertegun and Jerry Wexler of Atlantic, Jim Stewart and Estelle Axton of Stax and The Chess Brothers as it had been for the Lomaxes. They weren't saints of course (au contraire) but they despised the conformist, racist culture of the 1950's and knew that they were mounting a direct challenge by exposing the nation's youth to the liberating sounds coming from the hills and ghettos. In their own way they did as much to integrate America as the civil rights movement without ever actually being a part of it. Some of them paid a heavy price for that, especially Freed and Dewey Phillips.


It was of course the payola scandal of the late 1950's that destroyed Freed and essentially Phillips as well. The scandal came about when some congressmen came upon the novel theory that the only reason why the hated Rock N' Roll was popular was that vulgarians like Freed forced kids to listen to it. And the only reason they did so was because they were bribed by the record companies, especially the small independent ones who recorded the most Rock. This was called payola. This theory ignores the fact that the major labels who encouraged this witch hunt had openly engaged in payola for years, and they had deeper pockets than the indie labels. It also ignored the fact that at that time payola was in fact perfectly legal, at least assuming it was declared to the IRS. Nonetheless Congressional hearings were held and a defiant Freed was hauled in and grilled. He should have known it would end badly. The fifties had already seen the McCarthy witch-hunts and the less well known hearings on comic books which had essentially destroyed the classic EC Comics empire. These people were not fooling around, they had the power to crush the like of Freed and the desire to do so. Freed was the big prize, his original radio show had grown to include a TV show. He became a show promoter, a record producer and later a producer of wildly popular Rock n' Roll movies. He even owned some publishing rights, something that would, rightly, not be allowed today but which was once again perfectly legal at the time. He was genuinely famous, possibly the first multi-media star. With his brash manner, raspy voice and loud jackets Freed was the very face of the enemy as far as the Rock hating establishment was concerned. Even more than the actual singers, who tended to be rather polite and soft spoken to the media, Freed was a swaggering affront to polite society and proud of it. The very spirit of Rock and Roll.


Freed, arrogant as ever, refused to back down or apologize, nor would he lie. When he refused to sign an affidavit swearing that he had never taken payola his career was over. Then the IRS went after him and hounded him to his grave a few years later. Dewey Phillips was slightly luckier, he would keep his radio and TV shows in Memphis for a while. However the new squeaky clean era would have little time for a boisterous hard drinking pill popping throwback like Phillips. As the raw early rockabilly and R&B was replaced by the fresh scrubbed pop he lost first his TV show and then his radio show, forcing him to retreat further into the small town stations of the south, he would survive Freed by only a few years.

Enter Dick Clark.

Dick Clark was not one of the breed of DJs who discovered Rock n' Roll as an unwanted foundling and forced the bawling, brawling brat on the world. That role went to a few men (and they were all men) like Freed, Dewey Phillips, Macy Skipper and even Rufus Thomas and Bill Haley (both of whom started out as DJs). However Dick Clark had actually been kicking around television and radio for years before Rock n' Roll hit as a sort of utility fill-in man. He had been a radio and TV announcer, a game show host and a DJ known for his clean-cut preppy professionalism and affable demeanor rather than any actual interest in music. In fact he had no such interest or background at all and in later years he would admit that his favorite records were the various bland light classical compilations put out by Reader's Digest at the time. He had no background in Rock, or even Jazz. Alan Freed by contrast had genuine music roots having served as an MC and trombonist in a swing band before stumbling onto R&B. However while Clark was not by any stretch of the imagination cool or hip, if his job required him to learn at least a bit about what the kids were listening to then he would do it. This was not as cynical as it sounds, this sort of nine-to-five "just say your lines and hit your marks" attitude was quite common at that time. Such TV icons as Mike Wallace, Johnny Carson, Jack Paar, Walter Winchell and Dave Garroway had similar journeyman backgrounds until they figured out what they were good at, but in Dick Clark's case his choice seems to have been especially arbitrary. He could have just as easily ended up as the host of a game show or chat show as anything else. However if he little real interest in Rock n' Roll it must be admitted that he didn't look down on it either and he did not condescend to his teen audience, and this was more than could be said of many others at that time. His bland boy-next-door good looks and affable persona was perfect for TV in the same way that Johnny Carson's was, and the way the often loud brash Freed was not. While Freed courted controversy and got way too much enjoyment out of his bad press, Clark studiously avoided any such problems while still mostly giving his audience what they wanted and not completely horrifying their parents. And while his squeaky clean image may have been a mask, it was one he was quite comfortable wearing, there were never any sordid scandals attached to him. That didn't mean that he was really squeaky clean though.


When the payola scandal hit Clark was almost as famous as Alan Freed and so he was also called in to testify in front of congress, some of what was revealed showed that he was actually even more compromised than Freed was. It turned out that while Freed had taken money from favored record companies and had been given a share in the publishing on a number of songs, Clark had an interest in no less than thirty three music industry businesses, including record and publishing companies, management agencies and even a record pressing plant. Among the artists involved with Clark these included a several big pieces of chart topper Duane Eddy who had not surprisingly gotten a big push from Clark's shows. While Freed had always maintained his independence and refused to play records he thought his audience wouldn't like, and was openly disdainful of the pretty-boy Teen Idols and white-bread pop cover songs, Clark had no such qualms, he would happily champion the various vapid Frankies and Bobbys that the industry began to churn out. Besides music Freed had sold rebellion and sex, Clark sold neither. Clark carefully presented not only himself but the rest of his empire in a solidly respectable way while still being able to appeal to the teen audience. It was this balancing act along with his sense of self-preservation and professionalism that saved him from the fate the likes of Alan Freed or Dewey Phillips. Freed had snarled his defiance, Clark had been smooth and polite. Freed had refused to sign any wavers promising to behave, Clark quickly divested himself of any embarrassing conflicts of interest and promised never to step out of line again. And everyone believed him because he was Dick Clark. Freed and Phillips drank hard and gambled their money away, Clark built up an empire of game shows and restaurants. He would later add "Candid Camera", "TV Bloopers" and the New Year's Eve at Times Square to his haul, although those shows were created by others.


In later years Clark actually showed little shame about any of this, occasional admitting in interviews that he knew and cared little about music and once famously referring to himself as "a whore". He did try to burnish his reputation somewhat by claiming that he too had fought racism as Freed had done by hosting integrated concerts. However he seriously overstated his boldness, his studio audience was noticeably white and clean cut, with boys wearing prim jackets and ties and the girls wearing midi-hemmed dresses. There would be no smoking or gum chewing, no leather jackets and jeans, especially for girls. And there would most definitely not be any mixed race couples on American Bandstand, ever. The black artists Clark preferred were of the decidedly non-threatening (if still talented type) such as Chubby Checker, Frankie Lymon, Sam Cooke and the Motown stable. When singers like Jerry Lee Lewis, Larry Williams and Chuck Berry found themselves embroiled in scandals Clark was quick to drop them. Once he had divested himself of his interests in Duane Eddy he dropped him as well. Gene Vincent got on Clark's blacklist when he walked off in protest over Clark's lip-sync only policy. All this allowed Clark to survive while most of his contemporaries fell by the wayside, it also made him an extremely rich man. This may not however make him a villain like the successive owners of MGM Records, Mitch Miller and Mike Curb who made a concerted effort to stamp out Rock n Roll, and were rewarded by seeing their once powerful label all but disappear. He was certainly no hero though.

As the fifties turned into the sixties and some artists would begin singing cruder material and even protest songs, American Bandstand would remain an oasis of suburban calm. Eventually even the Bandstand had to end but by then Clark had branched out into so many other interests that he probably didn't care. He became the sort of distant exploitative tycoon who could be trashed by Micheal Moore in "Bowling for Columbine" for taking corporate handouts while using forced welfare workers for free labour.


Still his argument that his non-confrontational approach and businesslike attitude was the best way to keep Rock alive rather than the red hot visionary like Freed is not without some truth. The forces that were roused against Rock n' Roll in the late fifties should not be underestimated. It was after all the McCarthy era and the power of government to force a "clean-up" of the airways was very real. Less well known today was a contemporary attack on the comic book industry which destroyed many careers, drove many publishers out of business and forced an industry wide standard which amounted to an all-out censorship regime which would stay in place until the 1970's and retarded the artistic growth of the medium until the 1980's. The possibility of doing the same to Rock was very real. So perhaps while Freed is the more heroic (not to mention entertaining) figure, his kamikaze attitude was not the best long term strategy. If a few years of putting up with Frankies and Bobbys until the big social and cultural changes of the 1960's cleared the decks and allowed a more open society that would allow more creativity and expression, then perhaps it was worth it.

At any rate Clark managed to keep an affectionate place in the hearts of a generation of teens who got their first exposure to Rock n' Roll from American Bandstand. In fact it may be safe to say that for many white, middle class suburban teens they might not have otherwise discovered Rock at all. There are many important figures of rock's early years whose only surviving footage was an appearance with Dick Clark. That alone would have gained himself a footnote in Rock history.

Canadian footnote; one of those groups who made an appearance on Clark's show was a Montreal band called The Beau-Marks who became the first Canadian band (as opposed to a vocal group like the Crewcuts or Diamonds) to score an international hit with "Clap your hands" in 1960.